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1996 Olympic Games Gender Verification Services records

Identifier: Series No. 284

Scope and Content Note

Collection consists of materials related to the management and training of staff and volunteers in the Polyclinic of the 1996 Centennial Olympic Games in Atlanta, Georgia from 1993-1996. The majority of the collection consists of handbooks, contact lists, and planning documents related to the collection of specimens for gender verification of female athletes. There are also a small amount of ephemera from the games, photographs, and copies of the forms used for this process.


  • 1993-1996

Language of Materials

Materials entirely in English.

Restrictions on Access

Special restrictions apply: Selected materials restricted in accordance with Emory University Archive Access Policy.

Collection stored off-site. Researchers must contact Rose Library in advance to access this collection.

Terms Governing Use and Reproduction

All requests subject to limitations noted in departmental policies on reproduction.

Administrative History

By 1960, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) expressed a desire to ensure that athletes were competing from an equal place regarding both performance enhancing drugs and gender-based competition, and the IOC required on-site testing to combat the inequality. By 1996, Sex chromatin testing replaced the previous, more invasive inspections, and was required by the IOC in the Atlanta Committee for Olympic Games' (ACOG) contract. The testing was done through the Polyclinic which was housed in the restricted area of the Olympic Village. The Polyclinic collected identification and samples, conducted a physical assessment, and issued a gender verification, or "GV" card. Emory Genetics Laboratory conducted the testing and positive results were reviewed by the Gender Verification Director with assistance by a board-certified female gynecologist. The Gender Verification Section of the Polyclinic and Emory Genetics Laboratory were opened for twenty-six days in July 1996 and included about 50 trained female volunteers. The IOC stopped requiring whole-scale gender verification in 1999.


1.5 linear feet (3 boxes)


Records regarding the planning and training of staff and volunteers for the 1996 Olympic Games Gender Verification Services including handbooks and ephemera from the program.

Arrangement Note

Arranged by record type.




Processed by Laura Starratt, November 2021.

1996 Olympic Games Gender Verification Services records, 1993-1996
Emory University Archives, Emory University
November 4, 2021
Language of description
Script of description
Language of description note

Repository Details

Part of the Emory University Archives Repository

540 Asbury Circle
Atlanta Georgia 30322 United States